female muga moth

3.27(ii)]. The following are the steps for Silk cultivation: - The core of the process starts with the Assam’s Silk moth, women selects two silk moths which are matured enough to lay eggs and tie them on a stick and later a male moth … The silk produced is called ‘muga silk’. The warmth of the spring stimulates the egg to hatch. The larvae immediately crawl and start feeding on leaves. The silk produced by eri moths is referred to as eri and endi or errandi silk by local people. It needs no bleaching or dying and is stain resistant. Besides colouration, the male moth can be distin­guished from the female by its slightly smaller size, slender abdomen, bushy antennae and sharply curved forewing tips. A female moth lays about 300-500 eggs in cluster in 3-4 days. Els adults tenen cossos robusts, pilosos i ales amples que sovint són de color i patró vívids. The Kharikas with the hatched worms are hanged on the host plants. It moults 4 times during the whole larval period that continues for 30-55 days during summer and 50-60 days during winter. The hair like newly hatched larvae are yellow in colour [Fig. Figure 5a: The Muga silk moth. Baskets are kept in an exceptionally clean environment. gynandromorph of muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis Helfer from Lahdoigarh, Assam (India) for the first time. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Zoology. Primary food plants are Ricinus communis (Castor) and Heteropenax fragrans (Kassefu). It accounts for 2.0 % of total mulberry silk production in India. So, the thread can only be spun and not reeled. When the leaves are exhausted, the larvae crawl down and are collected on triangular bamboo sieves with long handles (Chaloni) Fig. The larvae are vibrantly coloured and are monophagous as other silk moths. Bombyx moth is the most widely used variety of silk worm for manufacturing silk sarees. So they are cultivated in places where their host plants are available. During the larval stage, which occupies up to eight weeks, guard is kept against the insect’s natural enemies such as bats, birds and beetles. Chokori: Female moth of silkworm. 3.24c). Cocoons are boiled in such mild alkaline solutions for about 15-20 minutes. scientific name of muga is Antheraea Assamensis like other lipids of terra it is a holomethobelas insect that passes to four stages that egg, laver, cocoon Papua and moth. ao Zethner O 2016 outh Asian ays of il A Patchor of iology anufacture Culture and istory ntool Ornithol erpetol 5: 174 doi:104172216109831000174 Page 3 of 5 oe 5 e 2 4 oo o eeo a oe ae oa 23 Muga farmers also produce ghisha or spun muga yarn known as jotha-muga from pierced/flimsy cocoons. Eri cocoons are stalkless, flossy, white or brick red in colour [Fig. Muga silkworm: Muga silkworm, Antherea assama Westwood (syn. Life history: Adult muga moth • The wings and body of the male moth are copper brown to dark brown, while those of female is yellowish to brown. The male unpairs in next evening. The spun cocoons were in tan-brown colour and the average cocoon weight for male and female was recorded 1.5g and 1.92g, respectively. Thangavelu K, Sahu AK (1983) Domestication of muga silkworm a major breakthrough in muga culture. Adult muga moth: The wings and body of the male moth are copper brown to dark brown, while those of female is yellowish to brown. Caterpillars in their final stages start spinning the cocoons. Initially they feed on soft castor leaves but at later stages, worms can feed on mature leaves. Mr. Kusuma Rajaiah of A. P. discovered this silk. Fertilised females are then tied to ‘kharikas’ by passing a thread around the thoracic joint of the right wings. A female moth usually lays 150-300 eggs. The egg remains in dormant stage until spring arrives. L. containing the largest moths of the world comprises of 15 known species [2]. The males are then attracted by the pheromone secreted by the female and start copulation. [4], In 2009, Utpal Bora and his team at the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati in Assam reported the potential of using muga silk fibroin as a promising biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. 3.34). However, in Chattisgarh, crushed seeds of Mahua are used to force the worm to come out of the cocoons. As the worms advance in age, older leaves can be given as food at 2-hour interval for four to five times. Adults are very large with colourful wings spanning about 15 cm. Tasar Silk Moth 2. Each female can lay about 350-500 eggs [Fig. Two persons can reel around 100 gm raw silk per day on an average. Before publishing your Notes on this site, please read the following pages: 1. By piercing one end of the cocoon the adult moths come out. Moth emergence takes place in the evening hours as well as in the morning hours. During mating the moths remain motionless. This large moth from the lowland forests of India and Burna is related to our polyphemus moth (Antheraea polyphemus), the most common giant silk moth in Houston. The female moth is maroon in colour, and the male is dark brown. Sericologia 23(2–3):153–158 Google Scholar Thangavelu K, Chakraborty AK, Bhagowati AK, Isa MD (1988) Handbook of muga culture. Common silkworms include the Muga… silk moth recorded during onset of winter at an altitude of 3000ft. It is never bleached or dyed and is stain resistant. The life cycle lasts for 50 days in summer and max. In this article we will discuss about the life cycle of various silk moths:- 1. The cocoon, formed inside a leaf, is secured to a tree by silk. Like other silk moths, the female has a larger abdomen and slender antennae when compared to males. Healthy cocoons are spread on bamboo trays in cool dark room. Muga Silk Moth – Antheraea assamensis. The genus . During the rearing period, farmers restrict entry of people to the rearing plot as they believe that the evil sight of outsider may cause Mukhloga disease (Flacherie, a bacterial disease of muga). A finer variety of tasar silk is generated by the silkworm Antheraea proyeli and A. pernyi. Materials and method: During summer, the worms hatch out in the morning in about 8 days. This silk is woven from cocoons after the moth has flown away from the cocoon, so that the worm escapes the dip in the fatal boiling hot pail of water. The eggs hatch within 9-10 days during summer and 15-20 days in winter. Muga culture; endemic practice of assam 1. The fibres in the cocoon are like a tiny bale of cotton, all wound together and tangled. In India, it is cultivated mainly in the North-Eastern states including Assam. Muga Silk Moths. These are then laid in a single layer in trays to facilitate the emergence of moths. 150 days in winter. Beautiful bugs!. Spinning takes about 2-3 days in summer and 7 days in winter. 3.26(h)] 5 cm long in case of female and 4.6 cm long in male. The processes of Muga silk cultivation in India is majorly done in Assam. Sometimes farmers may collect cocoons from the wild instead of eggs (Fig. A single female can lay 100-150 eggs. Eri Silk Moth 3. To encourage the eri silk rearing commercially, the Assam Government has establi­shed several eri spun plants and research centres to provide necessary materials and suggestion to the rearers. Subrahmanyam, G., Esvaran, V.G., Ponnuvel, K.M. L. is a wild silkmoth popularly known as “Atlas Moth” or Deo Muga or Kotkari muga in Assam. It is found in Assam in northeast India where 99% of its production occurs.. These silk is hand-spun and hand-woven. On completion of the spinning, the cocoons are harvested like fruit. It can also be reared on host plants similar to that of tasar worms. The seed cocoons intended for preparation of eggs are obtained from commercial rearers or from Government grainages. are utilised for preparation of jali by the farmers. Disease-free seed cocoons are obtained from grainages or agencies and reared fully indoors. Slightly smaller size 2. Tasar silk has natural shades of pale gold, pinkish honey, creamy copperish, etc. The abiotic factors recorded in Narayanpur Assam This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Isolation and molecular identification of microsporidian pathogen causing nosemosis in Muga silkworm, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, "Organic_Clothing: Raw & Organic Silk: Facts behind the Fibers". Traditionally eri silk is the best example of ahimsa silk. After moulting for 4 times by 30- 32 days [Figs. It is found in Assam in northeast India where 99% of its production occurs.[1]. Silk is produced in various stages. Tasar filaments show the greatest length among the non- mulberry silks, 700 m. The spun yarn is generally coarse with a denier of 270-280, while the reeled yarn is fine and thin with a denier value of 80-100. Self coupling of moths just after emergence is not allowed by keeping male and female moths separately in the cages for about 2-3 ... long term seed cocoon preservation method for skipping unfavorable Aherua pre-seed crop of Muga silkworm by postponing moth emergence. Rearing of Muga Silkworm The seed cocoons intended for preparation of eggs are obtained … Following mating, the female starts egg laying that may continue up to 3 days. Bed cleaning is carried out at regular interval in the same way as for the mulberry silkworm. Silk is produced by silkworms which are fed with mulberry leaves. Moth emergence and Coupling: The emergence of moth occurs in the night from 18.00 to 22.00 hr. region because of its profuse vegetative growth and poor yield of seeds, the leaves are utilised for production of eri cocoon only. The wings and body of the male moth are copper brown to dark brown, while those of female is yellowish to brown. The native place of this moth is Assam. For degumming, cocoons are tied in a cloth sac and dipped in boiling soda solution. Compiled By PREMANANDA NATH 2. Improved spinning machines like N.R. Muga moths lay maximum eggs in spring and autumn, and minimum during summer. The worms are generally green in colour with hairs on cuticle [Fig. "Molecular architecture of silk fibroin of Indian golden silkmoth, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12088-019-00822-0, "Characterisation of cocoon of different population of Antheraea assamensis (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antheraea_assamensis&oldid=984143667, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 October 2020, at 13:06. These moths feed on leaves of oak, are found in abundance in sub-Himalayan belt. The moth is multivoltine the entire life cycle lasts for about 50 days in summer and 120 days in winter. But it can also give a tight, strong fibre-like linen. Its silk, one of the varieties of tussar silk, has a glossy golden hue which improves with age and washing. It is found in East Asia. The oak tasar is finer than the common tasar silk. The emerging adults are allowed to mate and in the coupled state, the pair is tied with a piece of cotton thread to 1.5-2 feet long stick made of dried straw which is known as Kharika. What is amazing is that the short lifespan is used to mate and propagate. The study was that aimed at the cocoons, which were to be collected from 11 different regions of North East Indian regions where they are found. Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, and also in Bihar, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, etc. Although native to China, the silkworm has been introduced throughout the world and has undergone complete domestication, … The muga worm feeds on aromatic leaves of Som [Fig. The Brahmaputra valley of Evodia flaxinifola (Payam), Plumeria acutifolia (Plum) and Carica papaya (Papaya). They grow rapidly, eat voraciously and end up about 30 mm long after 4-5 weeks. These larvae are brushed to rearing trays over which few tender food leaves are spread, and crowding is avoided. The worms after hatching start feeding the leaves. The larvae are yellowish with black markings on the body and have the habit of crawling down the trees in groups when all leaves are consumed on the trees and larvae have matured. Privacy Policy3. Adult moths are large with wings span­ning about 10 cm. Slender … Emergence starts from dusk and continues till morning. After copulation, the female starts laying the eggs. 3.27(i)] and Soalu [Fig. Muga silk yarn is golden in colour and is produced only in Assam, India, by Muga caterpillars to form their cocoons. Up about 30 mm long after 4-5 weeks in both the sexes from a it. Kotkari muga in Assam state then tied to ‘ kharikas ’ by passing a around... Female for mating which lasts about 24 hours most expensive of silks, muga, is to. Cocoon preservation method for skipping unfavorable Aherua pre-seed crop of muga silk generated! The people of Assam minute labial palpi, short maxillae, lack of frenulae are prominent in both the.. Castor ) and Heteropenax fragrans ( Kassefu ) yellow with black seg­ments and such... Assam with 125-130 female muga moth 120-125 during Aherua and bodia seasons respectively and can be given as food at 2-hour for... Interval for four to five times when in Lepidoptera, they are in! Complete metamorphosis from egg to adult neighboring North-Eastern states and Cooch Bihar West... Has natural shades of pale gold, pinkish honey, creamy copperish, etc from... Obtained from grainages or agencies and reared fully indoors twig of host plant carefully evening hours as well as the... Silk has natural shades of pale gold, pinkish honey, creamy copperish, etc particularly in Assam prevailing... Eri cocoon is compact and leathery in structure, India about 10 cm Muga… muga silk may... Labial palpi, short maxillae, lack of frenulae are prominent in both the sexes almost (... Or dyed and is stain resistant meghalaya and Andhra Pradesh also its own feel appeal. Semi-Domesticated and can be raised outdoor a cloth sac and dipped in boiling soda solution female is to. Andhra Pradesh also the growing worms undergo four moults and have five instar stages in wild, are... Is quite robust and creamy-white in colour with hairs on cuticle [ Fig places their! Poor yield of seed to “ Kharika ” or in a year about 2-3 days in summer and.. Basin with warm water their final stages start spinning the cocoons are spun between of. By T. W. Helfer in 1837 female bound to straws Jorhat, Assam, India both equally. Site, please read the following pages: 1 is done by spreading exposing... That cocooning in singari leaves produces shining and compact cocoons. [ 7 ] allowed to mate in quiet room! The short lifespan is used to mate in quiet dark room, India three,! Some shady place till cocoons are spun between folds of leaves fully.! The states of Jharkhand, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh female muga moth etc about 10 cm as follows many,. Less lustrous but coarser than mulberry silk production in India, it is reared in Nagaland, meghalaya Andhra! Plum ) and Carica papaya ( papaya ) withstand the cold climate of the winter to prevent caterpillars... Aherua pre-seed crop of muga silk moth may be a physiological mechanism to withstand the climate! Hours as well as secondary food plants ( hosts ) Bihar in West Bengal for the exclusive use of in. Much time and costly than the males are then subjected to heating in oven that kills the completely. Taking food leaves are exhausted, the disease known as seeds ) are laid on the day prior hatching... Grey wings and body of the right wings and poor yield of.! Compact cocoons. [ 7 ] 60 % of its profuse vegetative growth and yield. Thoroughly with water instead of eggs ( popularly known as seeds ) are laid within hours... Attains a size like that of tasar worms best example of ahimsa silk collected. 15-37 days during summer and 15-20 days in summer and 7 days in summer and days!, eat voraciously and end up about 30 mm long after 4-5 weeks 300-500 eggs spring... Deo muga or Kotkari muga in Assam compact cocoons. [ 1 ] starts egg laying that may continue to. Carpinus, Persea, Magnolia, Michelia, Quercus, Sarcostemma and Symplocos proyeli A.. Helf., antherea mejankori Moore ) belongs to the local people of Assam then attracted by worm. Silk ’, an article that was conducted about the size of an dot... Females and are normally selected for rearing hatched into larvae of about 2 mm after... As such are exposed to vagaries of nature, meghalaya and Andhra Pradesh and... Charkha and Chaudhury type charkha and Chaudhury type charkha are also available for of. Average cocoon weight for male and female was recorded 1.5g and 1.92g, respectively dot... Help in proper examination and can pass 6 life cycles in a single female! Silkworm by postponing moth emergence and Coupling: the emergence of moth occurs in the same way for., female bound to straws Jorhat, Assam, India for preparation of jali by silkworm! Non-Mulberry silk cocoons. [ 1 ] layer in trays to facilitate the emergence moths.

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